A committee or commission is a body toàn thân of one or more persons subordinate vĩ đại a deliberative assembly. A committee is not itself considered vĩ đại be a sườn of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way vĩ đại explore them more fully than thở would be possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have different functions and their types of work differ depending on the type of the organization and its needs.
A thành viên of a legislature may be delegated a committee assignment, which gives them the right vĩ đại serve on a certain committee.
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A deliberative assembly may sườn a committee (or "commission") consisting of one or more persons vĩ đại assist with the work of the assembly. For larger organizations, much work is done in committees. Committees can be a way vĩ đại formally draw together people of relevant expertise from different parts of an organization who otherwise would not have a good way vĩ đại share information and coordinate actions. They may have the advantage of widening viewpoints and sharing out responsibilities. They can also be appointed with experts vĩ đại recommend actions in matters that require specialized knowledge or technical judgment.
Committees can serve several different functions:
- In organizations considered too large for all the members vĩ đại participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a smaller body toàn thân, such as a board of directors, is given the power vĩ đại make decisions, spend money, or take actions. A governance committee is formed as a separate committee vĩ đại review the performance of the board and board policy as well as nominate candidates for the board.
- Coordination and administration
- A large body toàn thân may have smaller committees with more specialized functions. Examples are an audit committee, an elections committee, a finance committee, a fundraising committee, and a program committee. Large conventions or academic conferences are usually organized by a coordinating committee drawn from the membership of the organization.
- Research and recommendations
- Committees may be formed vĩ đại bởi research and make recommendations on a potential or planned project or change. For example, an organization considering a major capital investment might create a temporary working committee of several people vĩ đại review options and make recommendations vĩ đại upper management or the board of directors.
- A committee on discipline may be used vĩ đại handle disciplinary procedures on members of the organization.
- As a tactic for indecision
- As a means of public relations by sending sensitive, inconvenient, or irrelevant matters vĩ đại committees, organizations may bypass, stall, or disacknowledge matters without declaring a formal policy of inaction or indifference. However, this could be considered a dilatory tactic.
Generally, committees are required vĩ đại report vĩ đại their parent body toàn thân. Committees bởi not usually have the power vĩ đại act independently unless the body toàn thân that created it gives it such power.
When a committee is formed, a chairman (or "chair" or "chairperson") is designated for the committee. Sometimes a vice-chairman (or similar name) is also appointed. It is common for the committee chairman vĩ đại organize its meetings. Sometimes these meetings are held through videoconferencing or other means if committee members are not able vĩ đại attend in person, as may be the case if they are in different parts of the country or the world.
The chairman is responsible for running meetings. Duties include keeping the discussion on the appropriate subject, recognizing members vĩ đại speak, and confirming what the committee has decided (through voting or by unanimous consent). Using Roberts Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR), committees may follow informal procedures (such as not requiring motions if it's clear what is being discussed). The level of formality depends on the size and type of committee, in which sometimes larger committees considering crucial issues may require more formal processes.
Minutes are a record of the decisions at meetings. They can be taken by a person designated as the secretary. For most organizations, committees are not required vĩ đại keep formal minutes. However, some bodies require that committees take minutes, especially if the committees are public ones subject vĩ đại open meeting laws.
Committees may meet on a regular basis, such as weekly or more often, or meetings may be called irregularly as the need arises. The frequency of the meetings depends on the work of the committee and the needs of the parent body toàn thân.
When the committee completes its work, it provides the results in a report vĩ đại its parent body toàn thân. The report may include the methods used, the facts uncovered, the conclusions reached, and any recommendations. If the committee is not ready vĩ đại report, it may provide a partial report or the assembly may discharge the committee of the matter sánh that the assembly can handle it. Also, if members of the committee are not performing their duties, they may be removed or replaced by the appointing power. Whether the committee continues vĩ đại exist after presenting its report depends on the type of committee. Generally, committees established by the bylaws or the organization's rules continue vĩ đại exist, while committees formed for a particular purpose go out of existence after the final report.
|Debatable?||Yes, although debate on the motion must be confined vĩ đại its merits only, and cannot go into the main question except as necessary for debate of the immediately pending question.|
|May be reconsidered?||Yes, if a committee has not begun consideration of the question. A negative vote on this motion can be reconsidered only until such time as progress in business or debate has made it essentially a new question.|
In parliamentary procedure, the motion vĩ đại commit (or refer) is used vĩ đại refer another motion—usually a main motion—to a committee.
A motion vĩ đại commit should specify vĩ đại which committee the matter is vĩ đại be referred, and if the committee is a special committee appointed specifically for purposes of the referred motion, it should also specify the number of committee members and the method of their selection, unless that is specified in the bylaws.
Any proposed amendments vĩ đại the main motion that are pending at the time the motion is referred vĩ đại a committee go vĩ đại the committee as well.
Once referred, but before the committee reports its recommendations back vĩ đại the assembly, the referred motion may be removed from the committee's consideration by the motion vĩ đại discharge a committee.
In the United States House of Representatives, a motion vĩ đại recommit can be made with or without instructions. If the motion is made without instructions, the bill or resolution is simply sent back vĩ đại the committee. If the motion is made with instructions and the motion is agreed vĩ đại, the chairman of the committee in question will immediately report the bill or resolution back vĩ đại the whole House with the new language. In this sense, a motion vĩ đại recommit with instructions is effectively an amendment.
Variations for full assembly consideration
In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR), the motion vĩ đại commit has three variations which bởi not turn a question over vĩ đại a smaller group, but simply permit the assembly's full meeting body toàn thân vĩ đại consider it with the greater freedom of debate that is allowed vĩ đại committees. These forms are vĩ đại go into a committee of the whole, vĩ đại go into a quasi-committee of the whole, and vĩ đại consider informally. Passing any of these motions removes the limitations on the number of times a thành viên can speak. The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure has informal consideration, but does not have "committee of the whole" and "quasi committee of the whole".
Discharge a committee
|Class||Motion that brings a question again before the assembly|
|In order when another has the floor?||No|
|Debatable?||Yes; debate can go into question in hands of the committee|
|May be reconsidered?||Negative vote only|
In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, the motion vĩ đại discharge a committee is used vĩ đại take a matter out of a committee's hands before the committee has made a final report on it. A committee can use this motion vĩ đại discharge a subcommittee.
The vote required is a majority vote if the committee has failed vĩ đại report at the prescribed time or if the assembly is considering a partial report of the committee. Otherwise, it requires a majority vote with previous notice; or a two-thirds vote; or a majority of the entire membership.
Under The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, the assembly that has referred a motion or a matter vĩ đại a committee may, by a majority vote, withdraw it at any time from the committee, refer it vĩ đại another committee, or decide the question itself.
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Organizations with a large board of directors (such as international labor unions, large corporations with thousands of stock holders or national and international organizations) may have a smaller body toàn thân of the board, called an executive committee, handle its business. The executive committee may function more lượt thích a board than thở an actual committee. In any case, an executive committee can only be established through a specific provision in the charter or bylaws of the entity (i.e. a board cannot appoint an executive committee without authorization vĩ đại bởi so). Members of the executive committee may be elected by the overall franchised membership or by the board, depending on the rules of the organization, and usually consist of the CEO and the Vice Presidents in charge of respective directorates within the organization. However formed, an executive committee only has such powers and authority that the governing documents of the organization give it. In some cases, it may be empowered vĩ đại act on behalf of the board or organization, while in others, it may only be able vĩ đại make recommendations.
Governments at the national level may have a conference committee. A conference committee in a bicameral legislature is responsible for creating a compromise version of a particular bill when each house has passed a different version.
A conference committee in the United States Congress is a temporary panel of negotiators from the House of Representatives and the Senate. Unless one chamber decides vĩ đại accept the other's original bill, the compromise version must pass both chambers after leaving the conference committee. The committee is usually composed of the senior members of the standing committees that originally considered the legislation in each chamber.
Other countries that use conference committees include France, Germany, nhật bản, and Switzerland. In Canada, conference committees have been unused since 1947. In the European Union (EU) legislative process, a similar committee is called a 'Conciliation Committee', which carries out the Trilogue negotiations in case the Council does not agree with a text amended and adopted by the European Parliament at a second reading. Although the practice has fallen out of favour in other Australian Parliaments, the Parliament of South nước Australia still regularly appoints a "Conference of Managers" from each House vĩ đại negotiate compromises on disputed bills in private.
Different use of term
In organizations, the term "conference committee" may have a different meaning. This meaning may be associated with the conferences, or conventions, that the organization puts together. These committees that are responsible for organizing such events may be called "conference committees".
A standing committee is a subunit of a political or deliberative body toàn thân established in a permanent fashion vĩ đại aid the parent assembly in accomplishing its duties, for example by meeting on a specific, permanent policy tên miền (e.g. defence, health, or trade and industry). A standing committee is granted its scope and powers over a particular area of business by the governing documents. Standing committees meet on a regular or irregular basis depending on their function, and retain any power or oversight originally given them until subsequent official actions of the governing body toàn thân (through changes vĩ đại law or by-laws) disbands the committee.
Most governmental legislative committees are standing committees. The phrase is used in the legislatures of the following countries:
- Standing Committees of the National Assembly
- Australian House of Representatives committees
- Australian Senate committees
- List of committees of the Canadian House of Commons
- Standing committee (Canada)
- Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
- Special committee of the National People's Congress
- Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
- List of standing committees of the Icelandic parliament
- Committees of the Oireachtas
- Hong Kong
- Legislative Council (Hong Kong)
- Standing committee (India)
- Dewan Rakyat committees
- Dewan Negara committees
- New Zealand
- New Zealand House of Representatives committees
- United Kingdom
- Parliamentary committees of the United Kingdom
- Public bill committee
- United States
- Standing committee (United States Congress)
Under the laws of the United States of America, a standing committee is a Congressional committee permanently authorized by United States House of Representatives and United States Senate rules. The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 greatly reduced the number of committees, and phối up the legislative committee structure still in use today, as modified by authorized changes via the orderly mechanism of rules changes.
Examples in organizations
Examples of standing committees in organizations are an audit committee, an elections committee, a finance committee, a fundraising committee, a governance committee, and a program committee. Typically, the standing committees perform their work throughout the year and present their reports at an annual meeting of the organization. These committees continue vĩ đại exist after presenting their reports, although the membership in the committees may change.
A nominating committee (or nominations committee) is a group formed for the purpose of nominating candidates for office or the board in an organization. It may consist of members from inside the organization. Sometimes a governance committee takes the role of a nominating committee. Depending on the organization, this committee may be empowered vĩ đại actively seek out candidates or may only have the power vĩ đại receive nominations from members and verify that the candidates are eligible.
A nominating committee works similarly vĩ đại an electoral college, the main difference being that the available candidates, either nominated or "written in" outside of the committee's choices, are then voted into office by the membership. It is a part of governance methods often employed by corporate bodies, business entities, and social and sporting groups, especially clubs. The intention is that they be made up of qualified and knowledgeable people representing the best interests of the membership. In the case of business entities, their directors will often be brought in from outside, and receive a benefit for their expertise.
In the context of nominations for awards, a nominating committee can also be formed for the purpose of nominating persons or things held up for judgment by others as vĩ đại their comparative quality or value, especially for the purpose of bestowing awards in the arts, or in application vĩ đại industry's products and services. The objective being vĩ đại update, phối, and maintain high and possibly new standards.
A steering committee is a committee that provides guidance, direction and control vĩ đại a project within an organization. The term is derived from the steering mechanism that changes the steering angle of a vehicle's wheels.
Project steering committees are frequently used for guiding and monitoring IT projects in large organizations, as part of project governance. The functions of the committee might include building a business case for the project, planning, providing assistance and guidance, monitoring the progress, controlling the project scope and resolving conflicts.
As with other committees, the specific duties and role of the steering committee vary among organizations.
A special committee (also working, select, or ad hoc committee) is established vĩ đại accomplish a particular task or vĩ đại oversee a specific area in need of control or oversight. Many are research or coordination committees in type or purpose, and are temporary. Some are a sub-group of a larger society with a particular area of interest which are organized vĩ đại meet and discuss matters pertaining vĩ đại their interests. For example, a group of astronomers might be organized vĩ đại discuss how vĩ đại get the larger society vĩ đại address near Earth objects. A subgroup of engineers and scientists of a large project's development team could be organized vĩ đại solve some particular issue with offsetting considerations and trade-offs. Once the committee makes its final report vĩ đại its parent body toàn thân, the special committee ceases vĩ đại exist.
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A committee that is a subset of a larger committee is called a subcommittee. Committees that have a large workload may sườn subcommittees vĩ đại further divide the work. Subcommittees report vĩ đại the parent committee and not vĩ đại the general assembly.
Committee of the whole
When the entire assembly meets as a committee vĩ đại discuss or debate, this is called a "committee of the whole". This is not an actual committee but a procedural device that is more commonly used in legislative bodies.
"Central Committee" was the common designation of a standing administrative body toàn thân of communist parties, analogous vĩ đại a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of surviving communist states in the 21st century. In such buổi tiệc nhỏ organizations the committee would typically be made up of delegates elected at a buổi tiệc nhỏ congress. In those states where it constituted the state power, the Central Committee made decisions for the buổi tiệc nhỏ between congresses, and usually was (at least nominally) responsible for electing the Politburo. In non-ruling Communist parties, the Central Committee is usually understood by the buổi tiệc nhỏ membership vĩ đại be the ultimate decision-making authority between Congresses once the process of democratic centralism has led vĩ đại an agreed-upon position.
- List of IEC technical committees
- List of the Czech Republic Senate committees
- Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Saudi Arabia)
- Parliamentary committees of the United Kingdom
- Popular Committees (disambiguation)
- Revolutionary committee (disambiguation)
- Standing Committees of the European Parliament
- United States congressional committee
- ^ Robert 2011, p. 489
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- ^ Walker, Dick; Bauser, John (April 2012). "So You Need (to Improve) a Governance Committee?". guidestar.org. GuideStar. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
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- ^ a b c Robert III, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-306-82019-9. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017.
- ^ Robert III 2011, p. 164
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- ^ Lynch, Megan S. (6 January 2016). The Motion vĩ đại Recommit in the House of Representatives (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- ^ Robert 2011, p. 168
- ^ Sturgis, Alice (2001). The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, 4th ed., p. 232, 233, 236
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- ^ Sturgis, Alice (2001). The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, 4th ed., p. 57
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- ^ Tsebelis, George; Money, Jeannette (1997). Bicameralism. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 178–179. ISBN 9780521589727.
- ^ Hays, Hon. Dan (Autumn 2008). "Reviving Conference Committees". revparl.ca. Canadian Parliamentary Review. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- ^ Crump, Rick (2007). "Why the Conference Procedure Remains the Preferred Method for Resolving Disputes Between the Two Houses of the South Australian Parliament" (PDF). Australasian Parliamentary Review. 22 (2): 120–136. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
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